# Signal Conditioning Industry Papers

### What is a Two-Wire Transmitter and 4-20mA Current Loop? An Introduction – 8500904

What Makes 4-20mA Signal Transmission so Outstanding? In two-wire 4-20mA control loops, we use 2-wire transmitters to convert various process signals representing flow, speed, position, level, temperature, pressure, strain, pH, etc., to 4-20mA DC for the purpose of transmitting the signal over some distance with little or no loss of signal. This paper reviews the…

### Why You Need USB Isolation for Industrial I/O – 8500901

USB Isolation and Industrial I/O The USB port has become the most popular method for connecting virtually anything to a computer; from simple flash drives to complex industrial I/O equipment. Most computers built in the last five to ten years have at least one USB port; with newer computers having upwards of six or more….

### How to Choose Single-Ended or Differential Voltage Measurement (Single-Ended Focus) – 8501035

Examining Important Aspects of Voltage Measurement Voltage is a difference in electric potential between two points, and a measure of force for current flow in a conductor or circuit. You can choose to measure voltage single-ended, or you can measure voltage differentially. This whitepaper is part 2 of two in the series, How to Choose…

### How to Choose Single-Ended or Differential Voltage Measurement (Differential Focus) – 8501068

Examining Important Aspects of Voltage Measurement Voltage is a difference in electric potential between two points, and a measure of force for current flow in a conductor or circuit. You can choose to measure voltage single-ended, or you can measure voltage differentially. This whitepaper is part 2 of two in the series, How to Choose…

### How to Minimize Errors when Making Thermocouple to Transmitter Connections- 8500926

Minimizing Errors when Making Thermocouple to Transmitter Connections The most important thing to remember about the thermocouple is it that itâ€™s the temperature difference between ends that produces the charge imbalance that drives the small voltages, not the junction of the two dissimilar metals that form the thermocouple circuit. While you can form your own…

### How to Select the Best Temperature Sensor for Process Control Applications – 8500918

Temperature Measurement: Select the Best Temperature Sensor for Process Control Applications Industry Technology Paper Thermocouples vs Resistance Temperature Detectors Many users simply look to fill the basic needs of their application and do not worry much about their choice of temperature sensing technology. That is, they will make a selection based simply on temperature range…

### How to Use Thermocouples for Temperature Measurement – 8500911

The Basics of Temperature Measurement Using Thermocouples Points of Consideration When Using Thermocouples to MeasureÂ  Temperature Since accuracy will ultimately play a significant role in selecting a sensor type, we should be familiar with potential sources of error when making temperature measurements with thermocouples. Some of these considerations may steer us from one T/C type…

### How to Use RTDs for Temperature Measurement – 8500917

The Basics of Temperature Measurement Using RTDs Temperature reigns as the most often measured process parameter in industry. Most industrial applications require that a temperature be measured remotely, and that this signal be transmitted some distance. An industrial transmitter is commonly used to amplify, isolate, and convert the low-level sensor signal to a high level…

### What is Strain Measurement? An Introduction – 8500699

What is Strain & Strain Measurement What is Strain Gauge? Strain gauges change resistance in proportion to applied forces that result from loading, torque, pressure, acceleration, and vibration. Because their change in resistance to force is very small, they often connect in a Wheatstone Bridge of four elements. You can wire a bridge with one…